This study analyses European consumers’ awareness and determinants of use of PDO, PGI and TSG labels in six European countries (Italy, Spain, France, Belgium, Norway and Poland) using data from a cross-sectional survey with 4,828 participants. The study confirms a higher awareness of PDO (68.1%) as compared to PGI (36.4%) and TSG (25.2%). Awareness is higher among men and people aged above 50 years. Consumers’ use of a PDO, PGI or TSG label is triggered by the belief that the label signals better product quality. Quality beliefs are shaped by an interest in getting information about product quality through the quality label. Interest in the origin of foods is a stronger direct and indirect driver of label use than interest in support for the local economy, but both motivations are not directly related to TSG-label use. Differences in the role of determinants are small between the three labelling schemes and between countries with versus without a strong tradition of quality labels in their agricultural and food quality policies. Apart from building general awareness and favourable quality perceptions of the quality schemes and their respective labels, efforts to stimulate consumers’ interest in origin and getting information about product quality through EU quality labels are recommended.