This paper investigates the impact of tenure security and other factors on investment in soil and water conservation (SWC) in Kenya. Factor analysis, step-wise regression and reduced form model approaches are used to explain the willingness, likelihood and intensity of adoption of SWC investments. The results confirm the importance of tenure security and development domain dimensions in determining the likelihood and intensity of adoption and suggest that to ensure land tenure policy is pro-SWC/environment, it is important to consider whether household plots are owned, rented out or rented in. The impact of household assets implies a poverty environment link. Similar factors affect the decision whether or not to invest in SWC and also the level of investment. The results suggest the need for region specific SWC practices and for broad policies that provide incentives for environmental conservation and poverty reduction.