This study analyzed determinants of farm-level climate adaptation measures in Africa using a multinomial choice model fitted to data from a cross-sectional survey of over 8000 farms from 11 African countries. The results indicate that specialized crop cultivation (mono-cropping) is the agricultural practice most vulnerable to climate change in Africa. Warming, especially in summer, poses the highest risk. It encourages irrigation, multiple cropping and integration of livestock. Increased precipitation reduces the probability of irrigation and will benefit most African farms, especially in drier areas. Better access to markets, extension and credit services, technology and farm assets (labor, land and capital) are critical for helping African farmers adapt to climate change. Government policies and investment strategies must support education, markets, credit and information about adaptation to climate change, including technological and institutional methods, particularly for poor farmers in the dry areas of Africa.