From the 1990s on, the sugar alcohol agro industry has been undergoing an intense process of merging and acquisition. The regions of Triângulo Mineiro and Alto Paranaíba - Minas Gerais have received significant investment directed to sugar- alcohol activities. This work aimed to analyze the major determinants in the sugar alcohol agro industry competitivity in the regions of Triângulo Mineiro and Alto Paranaíba, by verifying two determinants: inputs and market structure and relationships. The model of competitivity determinant factors of Duren et al. (1991) was applied, adapted to the method used in studies on fruit (UFV, 2001) and meat (SILVA & BATALHA, 1999) chains, etc. The analysis of the behavior of each factor showed that among the positive competitivity aspects presented by these mills and distilleries in terms of the raw material, sugar cane are the advantages of raw material availability and price negotiation. However, these mills and distilleries present some liabilities in relation to some elements downstream and upstream the sugar alcohol chain, such as the large concentration of agricultural input suppliers and alcohol distributors. Finally, they also undergo difficulties due to the competition of São Paulo companies.