This study examines the effectiveness of groundwater service providers of Bogura and Chapainawabgonj districts in Northwest Bangladesh by employing qualitative approach. Required data were collected through focus group discussions, key informant interviews, in-depth interviews, case studies, and observation from purposively selected participants, and analyzed through qualitative content analysis. Findings reveal that though majority of the farmers are dependent on institutional groundwater service providers, namely Barind Multipurpose Development Authority, Bangladesh Agriculture Development Corporation, and Rural Development Academy for groundwater irrigation, the share of individual tube-well owners is increasing noticeably. Provider specific effectiveness was assessed based on managerial, operation, and economic efficiencies. It is found that water buyers mostly prefer individually owned tube-wells for irrigation instead of institutional providers. Good service delivery, good operational and managerial practices, comparatively low irrigation charges, and regular water supply are the important factors motivated water buyers to choose individual service providers over institutional providers.