This study analyzes the current livestock insurance programs in Korea and suggests policy measures to reform the system. In 2005, the livestock insurance program participation rates were 2.7% for Korean native cattle, 11.9% for milk cows, 57.6% for pigs, and 32.8% for poultry respectively. The main reasons of such low participation especially for cattle were insufficient insurance coverage; high premium rates; the lack of competition in insurance marketing; and the lack of legal support. Many policy options are suggested to enhance the participation rates. Considering restricted government budget, policy options should be cost effective and consistent with other related policies. Some options can be implemented within a short period, while other options need substantial time before implementation.