The purpose of this study was to estimate the impact of the major factors affecting the export demand for U.S. almonds in Asia and the E.U. which together import about 93% of U.S. almond exports. The primary objective pertained to the impacts of federal promotion programs on the foreign demand for U.S. almonds. Based on previous literature, a single-equation framework was specified for estimation of the almond model. Based on promotion elasticities, impacts on almond export revenue from promotion were evaluated. The marginal return per dollar to decreasing promotion expenditures for almonds was $47.74 for Asia, reflecting prudent promotion expenditures for more efficient utilization of promotion funds as the Asian market for U.S. almonds approaches maturity. The E.U. appears to be a mature market for U.S. almond exports with no detectable responsiveness to promotion expenditures. Thus, simple reminder-type promotion activities for this market may be sufficient.


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