The article presents current status of the pig population in Poland and the reasons for its diminish in recent years. The main cause should be considered decline in the profi tability of the production of pork, especially in farms with small-scale production. Dramatic drop in the number of pigs in farms occurred maintaining the herd to 200 units. Development opportunities are devoid farms living to 20 sows or sellers to 400 fattening pigs per year. Development opportunities are farms living 20–50 sows or selling annually 400–1000 pigs or piglets 500–1200. A fully competitive farms are sustained over 50 sows and selling over 1,000 fattening pigs per year, or more than 1,200 piglets. The main factor determining the profi tability of the pork production is its scale.