This analysis touches upon an evaluation and estimation of the potential of communes in Małopolska voivodeship in terms of energetic use of plant biomass. The research results showed that if biomass, in the form of straw and hay not used in agriculture and willow (salix) cultivated on lands out of agricultural production, was marked for energetic aims, the generation of about 8.3 PJ of energy would be possible. It was also pinpointed that within the group of communes with the highest potential of hay and willow for energetic use (25% of communes), environmental (the quality of production space) and economic factors (the area structure, and confi guration, etc.) will hinder the development of the biomass market. The same conditions which contributed to the regress of agriculture are seen as an obstacle to eff ective and profi table biomass production. The only real opportunity for development of the biomass market is seen in straw, which can be acquired in communes with the best natural and economic conditions.