The aim of this paper is to identify directions and dynamics of changes in the role of agriculture in the national economy of EU countries. The time frame of the analysis based on Eurostat data covers the years of 2000–2015. The study fits within the framework of comparative economics. As it results from the presented analyses, changes are found in the proportions between agriculture and the other sectors of the economy. An increase in the level of economic development is accompanied by a decrease in the share of the agricultural sector in the generation of GDP and the labour market. At the same time, primarily as a result in the reduction of the number of persons employed, an increase was recorded in workforce productivity in agriculture. This is evident especially in many of the countries accessing the European Union in 2004 and in the later period. Despite positive changes, agriculture in those countries is still playing a significant role in the links with economy, manifested particularly in its share in the employment rate and owned productive fixed assets.