This article attempts to assess the importance of agri-food sector in the national economy in Poland at the national and regional level concerning its production potential (labour, capital and investments), as well as its production output (gross output, gross value added). The survey covered agriculture and food industry in Poland. The analysis was based on the data from the statistical publications of the Central Statistical Office of Poland. The results indicate the spatial differentiation of internal structure agri-food sector and its participation in the regional economy. It is concluded that this sector is one of the most important segments of the Polish economy.