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Conservation Agriculture (CA) has been actively promoted actively since the early 1990s among Zambian smallholder farmers as a practice that helps improve crop productivity, improve soil fertility, and mitigate against low and/or variable rainfall. However, nationwide survey data show that adoption rates by Zambian smallholder farmers have remained low, while dis-adoption is widespread despite years of promotion. Several empirical studies have investigated the determinants of adoption, dis-adoption, and non-adoption of CA with the focus being on human capital assets, farm assets, institutional factors, risks and economic factors, and climatic conditions.


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