Factors influencing technology adoption by Rwandan coffee farmers, assessed according to the extent of adoption of soil testing and use of fertilizer, are studied based on a survey of 183 coffee farmers from Rusatira and Muyira districts in Butare Province during 2001. Twenty per cent of farmers surveyed have adopted both practices, however, forty-nine per cent have adopted neither. A chi-square test shows a strong association between the two practices, implying that a farmer who tests soils on his farm is also likely to use fertilizer. Results support expectations that farmers who adopt more recommended technologies and farming practices are more productive and more efficient producers of coffee. A discriminant analysis identified land fragmentation, availability of wealth and liquidity, and education of the principal farm decision-maker as the most important factors influencing the adoption of recommended and appropriate farming practices on coffee farms, followed by gender of farm operator, and farm information acquired by farmers. Transformation of Rwandan coffee farming requires policies that (a) remove obstacles to the development of an efficient land market in order to reduce land fragmentation and to transfer land to more efficient farmers; and (b) improve rural education and liquidity, and reduce gender discrimination in order to improve farmers’ abilities and promote adoption of recommended farming practices.