The paper aims to present the results of the research of agri-business operation efficiency in Ukraine. The research underlines the analysis of the conditions of the above mentioned sector of economy especially agriculture and food processing industry as well as consideration of factors affecting their functioning and underused potential of the industries. The export activities in the country related to the movement and processing of farm products have been thoroughly analyzed. The estimation of lost benefits in the form of lost added value from under conversion of the grain sold abroad. On the basis of the conducted research we have made a conclusion that agrarian sector of economy can work as a guarantee for the national safety of Ukraine today. The analysis of dualization phenomenon in agrarian economy, its reasons and consequences and possibility for regulation has been carried out. The state support of agri-business and the role of this sector of economy in the euro integration process of Ukraine have been considered. The impact of the economic situation in Ukraine on the efficiency of agribusiness operation has been also revealed.