Theoretical and applied literature on risk in pest control decision making is reviewed. Risk can affect pesticide decision making either because of risk aversion or because of its influence on expected profit. It is suggested that pesticide application does not necessarily reduce risk and that risk does not necessarily lead to increased pesticide use by individual farmers. Analyses need to consider more sources of risk than has usually occurred. The influence of pest information on risk is discussed. A range of analytical techniques for analysing risk in pest control is reviewed. Gaps in existing literature are identified.