This farm-level study in the Niger basin of Benin aims to assess the impacts of climate shocks on farm activities and to simulate adaptation policy responses using a recursive dynamic mathematical programming model. Eight types of farmers were identified, and the results show that the average farm income declines under climate shocks, by 17.43 to 69.48%, compared to the baseline scenario. Farmers of agro-ecological zone II will be affected the most by climate shocks, followed by those in agro-ecological zones III, I and IV. Moreover, land and labour shadow price declines over the years due to climate shocks and extreme events. Adaptation policies, namely (i) improved irrigation, (ii) better access to credit, (iii) research and development, and (iv) better access to the labour market, contribute to coping with the adverse impacts of climate shocks on farm income. However, the success of adaptation policies depends on the ability of policymakers to implement them.