The continuous growth in demand of vehicular traffic has led to a large increase in fuel consumption and emissions, negatively impacting the environment, public health, and the economy. The main goal of this paper is to synthesize and document the state-of-the-practice in modeling fuel consumption and emissions at signalized intersection approaches. The synthesis work presented in this paper focuses on two main areas: fuel consumption and emission modeling tools for signalized intersection approaches and the sources of emissions inventory and data used in the models. The first part of this paper includes a background covering different traffic-related pollutants, emission factors and different methods used to obtain them and examples of the currently available emission inventories. In the second part, a review of currently available fuel consumption and emission models suitable for modeling traffic operations at signalized intersection approaches is presented covering three different analysis levels: microscopic, mesoscopic, and macroscopic.