The paper analyses the role of institutional factors in giant clam farming and conservation in the South Pacific. Institutions can be characterized as organisations and rules of the game. This distinction is adopted in the present report. The development of a giant clam farming industry can be speeded up by Fisheries Divisions through entertaining collaborative relationships with the private sector and by providing it with information, for example, on giant clam farming methods. Fisheries Divisions can promote clam conservation, not only by re-stocking reefs and introducing regulations on clam export and collection, but also by stimulating the establishment of community resource management schemes based on the rich tradition of customary marine tenure found in the countries considered in this paper. This can result in a cheaper method of clam conservation than re-stocking and may also help in maintaining the traditional knowledge of the marine environments.