The aim of the study was to assess the internal and external competitiveness of the Polish food industry (production sector of food and beverages). Data related to years 2003-2012, and in some cases 2013. In terms of integration and economic globalization inherent in the business operation has become to compete with other entities, aimed at achieving the benefits of the action both domestically and internationally. For the Polish food industry last decade was a period of intensive development. Despite lower growth rates in this sector than in all of manufacturing (among others: production, investment), the competitiveness of the food industry increased. The dynamic growth of exports, improve balance and other analyzed indicators of external competitiveness of the food industry points to strengthening of the position of domestic producers on the international market. This phenomenon has a positive impact on the economic condition of the sector and the prospects of its development.