This study was designed to assess the relative profitability of rice and shrimp farming in two villages of Tildanga Union in Dacope Upazila of Khulna district in Bangladesh. In total, 120 farmers were randomly selected for the study. Descriptive statistics, activity budgets, Cobb-Douglas production function model were employed to achieve the objectives of the study. The study confirmed that both T. Aman rice and shrimp production were profitable. Shrimp production is more profitable than the rice production. Despite the fact, a large number of farmers prefer rice to shrimp due to environmental effects and welfare grounds of the common people. The results clearly indicated that farmers were producing in rational zone of a typical production function. Nevertheless, there is a scope to increase both Aman rice and shrimp by applying more doses of the concerned inputs under the present technology. It was concluded that all the farmers’ opinions regarding crop cultivation were not same in the study area. The present study, of course, assessed the profitability of growing transplanted Aman rice and shrimp in Polder 31 and has given some important clues to make right decisions regarding better options for more environment-friendly profitable crop farming for individual farmers in Polder 31.