Canada implemented a national cattle identification system led and developed by the industry. Initially a voluntary program beginning in July 2001, it became mandatory in July 2002 and achieved 92-95 percent compliance by that fall. The system was low cost to initiate and operate and only requires that animals be tagged before leaving the farm of origin and the tags are read when the animal dies or is exported. The national ID system did not protect Canadian cattle from a sole case of BSE, or Mad Cow Disease, found in the spring of 2002, but it did help speed and lend confidence to the investigation. While the ID system was the objective of the study, the team also report on how markets and an industry behave in a crisis.