Africa’s abundant mineral resources offer opportunities for its countries’ governments to work with mining companies so that minerals exploitation can benefit both company and country. Well-managed mineral exploitation can underpin broad-based sustainable growth and socioeconomic development, in the words of the Africa Mining Vision (AMV) of 2009. An Action Plan for Implementing the AMV (2011) has set out strategies for developing mineral management systems and institutions through which Africa can benefit from its mineral resources, and it is now being implemented by the African Minerals Development Centre which has begun work in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, within the UN Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA). The Centre’s task is to build strategies and policies to support sustainable development. Stakeholder relations, both with investing companies and affected communities, are critical, as also is careful forethought about social and environmental impacts, legislation, infrastructure and adaptation of technologies to bring modern tools and practices to African agriculture.