This study aims to gain insight in quality assurance (QA) activities along China’s dairy chain, to assess the potential of meeting more demanding domestic and foreign consumers. The study reviewed QA literature and QA standards (HACCP, GlobalGAP, and BRC) to formulate indicators for QA. Based on this framework 31 indicators have been operationalized for a questionnaire. Altogether 33 respondents have filled out the questionnaire, and six in-depth expert-interviews elaborated on the challenges, their causes, and the suited strategies. Following the analysis the study arrived at 12 key challenges, and strategies to cope with them. The findings can be used as a guide for reorganizing current food safety programs, to improve food safety and quality of China’s dairy chain to comply with QA standards.