Agriculture has multiple functions to fulfill for the development of the sub-Saharan Africa countries. It should be a source of growth and an instrument for poverty reduction and contribute to the provision of environmental services. Yet it is still used far below its potential, with gains in land and labor productivity lagging behind those of other regions. Successful use of agriculture for development will require greater attention from governments and donors, supported by scholarship and learning. The economics profession has an important role to play in helping to re-conceptualize in a new paradigm the role of agriculture for development, to design and evaluate new approaches, to contribute to capacity building, to advise on policy and to mobilize political support.