The European policy of rural development is largely included in what is usually called the second pillar of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), covered by Rural Development regulations (RRD) and in support of which an agricultural European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD) was set up. Its mode of intervention relies less on direct aid more on offering support to projects by federating regions and Member States to promote activities and actions in favour of the living environment in rural areas. However another aspect of EU intervention, the policy of cohesion, also concerns rural areas. The impact of these two aspects of EU intervention on the development of rural areas seems limited, only imperfectly addressing the contemporary reality of rural development. A dual approach is required in order to align the actions of the current programs and develop them further: on the one hand, with regards to the first pillar of the CAP and the spatial dynamics of the agricultural sector; on the other hand, with regards to social actions and regional development which affects the city as much as the countryside.