Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) helps low income people and households buy food for proper health. This study seeks to examine the effects of changes in economic conditions and welfare on SNAP participation in the Appalachian region. Using county level data, the Spatial Durbin (SDM) Model was used to examine the effect of economic conditions, demographic attributes and institutional factors on SNAP participation. Empirical results from the marginal effects indicate that poverty had the greatest influence on SNAP participation. Findings from this study could be helpful in improving welfare programs in this region.