This talk reflects on the proceedings of the Crawford conference and provides a way forward in policy thinking. Effective food and agriculture policy decision-making requires clearer differentiation of countries by their stage of development. Operationally, it implies different approaches at the country level based on the stage of development. It requires concerted and coordinated efforts from the public and the private sector, and the international donor community. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has committed itself to addressing the problems of chronic hunger and poverty in the least-developed world and for marginalised people in the emerging economies. The talk also provides information on the approach taken by the Foundation in agriculture development.