The milk chain is very important to Brazilian agribusiness, generating jobs and income to many actors involved. This study aims to identify key factors that influence the performance of the milk chain, as well as the adaptation of farmers to new patterns of competition and access to new technologies developed. From a case study with a dairy farmer cooperative in Laranjeiras do Sul, Parana, we identified the main characteristics of institutional and organizational environment evolution and how these evolution influenced the chain performance. We described the technological changes occurring in the productive process, as well as the strategies adopted by producers to adapt to these changes. However, it was observed that a part of these producers, especially linket to small businesses, need to improve their infrastructure. Moreover, it’s necessary a better commitment to the chain institutional aspects as well as to improve road conditions and specialized technical assistance.