The Barcelona Agreement was signed in 1995, setting forth a structure with bilateral agreements between the EU and twelve Mediterranean countries. The agreement also foresaw the creation of a free trade area in the Euro-Mediterranean region by 2010. For many of the countries surrounding the Mediterranean sea, fruit and vegetables are very important products. In light of the increasing trade liberalization and thus increasing competition between countries, this paper aims to investigate further the competitiveness of Mediterranean countries with respect to fresh fruit and vegetables. The results generally show that the competitiveness of the investigated countries has deteriorated over the period. In only two cases, there is an increase in competitiveness.