In this paper we investigate the role of poultry in the livelihoods portfolios of households and the impact of supply and demand shocks that may be caused by Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) on various livelihoods outcomes of households in four Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. The study countries include Ethiopia and Kenya in East Africa and Ghana and Nigeria in West Africa. These countries represent a spectrum of SSA countries in terms of disease status, role of poultry sector and means of disease spread. By using nationally representative household level secondary data and discrete choice methods (probit model and zero inflated negative binomial model) we profile the household, farm and regional characteristics of those households who are most likely to keep poultry, and those who are most likely to be engaged in intensive poultry production, i.e., keep larger household flocks. We estimate the impact of the disease outbreaks and scares/threats on livelihood outcomes by using matching methods (i.e., propensity score matching). The results of this study generate valuable information regarding the role of poultry in the livelihoods of small-scale poultry producing households and the livelihood impacts of HPAI induced demand and supply shocks. Such information is critical for the design of targeted and hence efficient and effective HPAI control and mitigation policies.