The extent of agricultural foreign trade (AFT) of the Czech Republic (CR) increased markedly after accession to EU. The first part of this article is devoted to the trends during the period of 2004 – 2008. Detailed analysis of the CR AFT has been carried out for all 24 items of the basic food goods during the same period for the assessment of competitiveness of individual commodities. The Balass indicator RCA (Revealed Comparative Advantage) was used for this analysis, as well as the Michaely index that shows the specific measure of specialization for export. The method of logarithmic decomposition, which makes it possible to determine the effect of prices and quantities to net export has also been used. This paper was processed within the framework of the Research Project of MSM 6046070906 "The economics of Czech agricultural resources and their effective use in the frame of multifunctional agri-food systems".