After a successful career at the University of São Paulo, Marcos Jank became the President and CEO of the Brazilian Sugarcane Industry Association (UNICA) in July 2007. He was hired with a mandate to establish ethanol as a global commodity and to open new markets for the industry’s sugar, ethanol and bioelectricity output. But he faced complex challenges. The main challenge related to the role of UNICA in leading industry-wide sustainability initiatives. This required coordination of 70,000 sugarcane producers and 430 processors; engagement with outside stakeholders in Brazil and abroad; and implementing programs that balanced economic, social and environmental outcomes. A second set of challenges emanated from the rapid growth and dramatic structural changes occurring in the industry. This case study describes UNICA’s unique approach to sustainability and how it is changing the industry, allowing the reader to analyze the effectiveness of this approach in delivering sustainability.