The objective of this paper is to present and analyze preliminary some selected methodological consequences of the disputes held between modernists and post-modernists for the contemporary theory of the firm. There is no doubt that the subject of these disputes constitutes the main axis in the discussion on the structure and functioning of the modern enterprise. In the situation of the intense debate between modernists and post-modernists, it appears that chances of the economic theory of the firm to find explicit answers to the questions on the essence and causes of establishing the enterprise are decreasing. However, at the same time our knowledge on the causes and mechanisms of differentiating enterprises in current market economies is increasing. The achievements of philosophy and methodology of science allow us to formulate a hypothesis that this is going to be a lasting situation.