The study examined beekeeping activities in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Specifically the study appraised the costs and returns structure of beekeeping activities by beneficiaries of the ESACA scheme, examined the constraints to beekeeping under the scheme and outside the scheme and identified factors that affect beekeeping under the scheme and outside the scheme. A total of 150 beekeeper households were selected; 75 households each for ESACA beneficiary and non-beneficiary respondents across communities popularly known for beekeeping in Ekiti state. Descriptive statistics, costs and returns, regression and Kruscalwallis analyses were employed for data analysis. Beekeeping was found to be more profitable under the ESACA scheme than outside the scheme with returns to beekeeping labour and management of N 128.5 and N 87.0 per hive for beneficiary and non-beneficiary respondents respectively. The pooled regression result showed that the ESACA scheme enabled beneficiary respondents to be more economically viable than the non-beneficiary respondents. The bee-keepers are also faced with numerous constraints including inadequate credit, pests and diseases, bee aggressiveness, bush burning, absconding of bees, theft, inadequate technical assistance and poor market problems. The study therefore calls for that ESACA authority should extend its credit facilities to more beekeepers, need to increase loan sums and other credit facilities disbursed to beekeepers and the discouragement of bush burning by the hunters and other forest users during the dry season.