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Abstract

Ignored by Schultz and Hirschman, the irrational use of land by able-bodied part-time/absent small farmers earning higher off-farm income without leasing it to full-time farmers to be competitive, has been a global obstacle with both public and private land ownership, traditional and modern agriculture, fragmented small and joinedly enlarged land, low and high income economies, under-self-sufficiency and overproduction, and developing and developed economies, albeit land property rights have been defined and sale/lease allowed, hampering poverty reduction (especially in developing economies like CEE), and causing overproduction and protectionism (particularly in developed economies such as the EU), environmental deterioration, etc. Effective and suitable solutions have been exercised by China for public land ownership to resolve under-self-sufficiency, prevent overproduction and improve the environment, but not for private land ownership, which are proposed here. They have received appreciation and attention of the EU, EU accession countries, OECD, UN, CSD, FAO, UNEP and World Bank.

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