Collective action cannot develop without the commitment of partners to a common project. Building a new Geographical Indication (GI) implies crucial strategic decisions regarding the norms of the production process, the limits of the geographical area and the choice of the protected GI name. Who is going to make these decisions? What is the best path to kick-off with success the initiative? Two approaches have recently been tested in practice: the cluster approach and the working group approach. This paper presents the scientific background of these two approaches. A state of the art is proposed on the concept of cluster, developed in Industrial Economics. The translation theory, developed in Economic Sociology, is mobilised to analyse the “translation cycles” followed by most working groups. Based on case studies, this paper highlights and explains the benefits and risks of both approaches. It proposes an approach that combines face to face negotiations between the facilitator and potential partners, large information campaigns, and a representative working group in order to guarantee access to information to all and avoid further oppositions.


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