The quality of reclaimed land not only relates to the way of reclamation, but also has close relations to farmers’ living standard and households’ behaviors. Taking the farmland in the reclamation region of the Liuxin County, Tongshan Town, Xuzhou as the survey objects, we conduct a survey on peasant households in the reclamation region by the way of questionnaire. The data collected from the survey are analyzed by using scientific statistical methods, including SPSS software and Excel. The results show that in the investigation of peasant households’ perceptual knowledge towards the quality of reclaimed land, 42.5% of them holds the satisfactory and extremely satisfactory attitudes, which take relatively high percentage. As a result of the increase of non-agricultural income, 6% of peasant households are indifferent to the quality of the reclaimed land. During the investigation of peasant households’ rational knowledge towards the quality of the reclaimed land, the nitrogen content and organic content in soil filled by pulverized fuel ash are significantly lower than that in the soil filled by coal gangue and that in soil in the contrast area. The current production and planting pattern of peasant households has not improved the quality of farmland in the reclaimed area effectively and most peasant households still use the traditional way of cultivating. Hence, it is necessary to strengthen the guide on the thought patterns of peasant households, to cultivate scientifically and to enhance the quality of reclaimed farmland. The yields of the reclaimed farmland are low in the primary year, but with the increases of input and the restoration of the land, the annual yields will increase gradually, and gradually approaches to the usual yields. Based on it, the corresponding countermeasures are put forward: for one thing, improving soil alkalescency and enhancing soil fertility; for another thing, attaching much attention to technological directions, scientific cultivation and carry out the standards of reclamation strictly.