Main modes of agricultural modernization in developed countries are summarized, as well as their impact on the interests of farmers. Among them, In the America, Canada, Australia and other sparsely-populated countries, they adopt the labor force saving model based on large-scale mechanization during agricultural mechanization. Japan and other countries with many people and little land adopt the land saving model with high technology. And the Western European Countries use the intermediate model to exert the function of mechanization and technology. interests security of farmers in rural land circulation is discussed, such as the unreasonable allocation of circulation rights, changing the land property and land use without authorization; undermining the long-term interests of farmers, and the unsolved social security problem of farmers. Interest guarantee of farmers during the process of agricultural industrialization is analyzed, pointing out that big household or leading enterprise usually occupies a favorable position in the cooperative. They use their advantages in share and management to raven the operation achievement of peasant households and to transfer risks. Due to the information asymmetry, farmers are at a weak position in the cooperation with leading enterprise. Interests protection of farmers in scale management is put forward, such as strengthening the subsidies for farmers, implementing a moderate scale management suitable for the situation of China, and establishing a fair and reasonable benefit affiliating mechanism among peasant household, cooperative and leading enterprise.