Based on correct understanding of the connotation and essence of agricultural modernization, according to the data in 2008 China Statistical Yearbook and the relevant literatures about eastern China, a total of 12 indices are selected to construct the evaluation index system of agricultural modernization in eastern China by combining with its social development and following the principles of systematization, comprehensiveness, representativeness, legitimacy and comparability. Then, according to the decision-making rules of modern science, 3 alternatives are put forward and max compatibility degree method is used to generate the optimization solution. Result shows that agricultural modernization in eastern China can be classified into three types. The first type is Shanghai; the second type includes Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Fujian and Shandong; and the third type is Jiangxi and Anhui. The evaluation result is in accord with the actual situation of agricultural development in eastern China. Finally, since there still needs improvement in capital investment, rural education, agricultural science and technology research, peasant training, and social and organizational structure, it is pointed out that we should optimize the investment agriculture, enhance support for science and technology, perfect the mechanism of “promoting agriculture development by industry and developing the township by the city”, and accelerate the development of agricultural modernization in eastern China.