According to the urban and rural income levels and the national poverty line, peasant households are classified into poor households, middle-income households and wealthy households. Based on the investigation data of 259 peasant households in three villages of Hebei Province, the features of family structure, economy, ideology and communication of peasant households with different income levels in current status are analyzed. The result shows that there are great differences in family structure, ideology, economy and communication of peasant households with different income levels. The low-income households are featured by unreasonable family structure, heavy burden, conservative behavior and blocking information. While the middle and high income households are good at communicating and willing to take risk and armed with high skills. Based on this, relevant suggestions are put forward to promote the development of peasant households, such as optimizing family structure, cultivating the capacity of the core numbers of the family, guiding households to choose a suitable development path, encouraging farmers to work outside, ensuring the legitimate rights and interests of migrant workers, flourishing rural culture, and setting up good platform for the communication of households.