The paper has examined temporal changes in the composition of livestock exports, assessed the export competitiveness of different livestock products and analysed the factors affecting the growth of livestock export. The performance of livestock export has been found noteworthy. The liberalization policy initiated in 1991 seems to have improved the performance of livestock exports. The study has revealed that India is competitive in export of meat products, except poultry. The export of buffalo meat has been increasing consistently and the poor domestic demand has further fuelled its export. But, the export of mutton does not seem to have much prospects in the short-run, as even the domestic demand is not being met by domestic production. In milk and milk products, India has some advantage at the farm level, but is not competitive in export of milk and milk products under the prevailing world market situation. The domestic policy initiatives and increased production and productivity have been identified as the important factors in increasing the export of livestock products. The study has suggested that strengthening of export supply capacity domestically holds the key for enhancing export of livestock products rather than expanding world market.