The inter-linkages amongst agricultural productivity, rural poverty and nutritional security have been analysed based on a study of Bagalkot district of Karnataka state using primary data for the agricultural year 2005-06 obtained from 120 farm households. The data have been processed using ratios, frequencies, percentages, regression analysis and probit model. Agricultural productivity has negatively and significantly influenced rural poverty at the farm level. Low agricultural productivity is the root cause of rural poverty. Household size and number of dependents therein have positively influenced rural poverty. Optimization of household size or increase in the number of earning members of the household would reduce poverty. Nutritional security is greatly influenced by the level of rural poverty. To upgrade the nutritional status of households, the study has suggested that effective poverty alleviation programmes aimed at enhancing agricultural productivity through transfer of productive assets instead of consumer goods to the poor, should be launched and effectively monitored. Agricultural credit being an important aspect of productivity, appropriate steps should be taken to increase the access of rural households to financial institutions.