Like in other CEEC, transition in the beginning of the 1990s had significant consequences for the agricultural and food sectors in Slovakia. For example, Slovakian consumers reacted to the abolition of consumer subsidies by drastically reducing their consumption of milk and milk products. Concurrently, milk production declined and now stands at fifty percent of its 1989 level. Dairies were closed down while those remaining carried on producing under constantly increasing overcapacities. In the years prior to EU accession, activities in the milk sector were primarily aimed at the adoption of EU standards. Meanwhile, the Slovakian milk processing industry is predominantly in the possession of foreign investors. Present per capita consumption of milk and milk production is still at a very low level, which nutrition experts assess as an alarming health risk. This paper contains an overview of the Slovakian dairy sector, which comprises the complete milk chain – from primary production to processing and retailing up to consumption. The description is complemented by background information on demographic, economic and political parameters in Slovakia.