The implementation of eco-labelling schemes for agricultural and food products may represent an opportunity to enhance production technologies compatible with the sustainable economic approach. The paper presents an attempt to design a comprehensive methodological framework in which the consumer behaviour change is the driving force for redirecting the market, the production, and the international trade. This approach focuses on the specification of the most relevant variables necessary to implement a simplified, but comprehensive analysis, from which it is possible to proceeding to a broad estimate of the changes in terms of consumption patterns, revenue distribution, import and export, and natural resources consumption. On a theoretical basis, the framework highlights that the most relevant conservation effect on natural resources, occurs when the eco-labelling schemes are enforced by two countries, under a market regime of free trade. On the contrary, if only one country adopts the schemes, then the effect is negligible.