The paper deals with the key issues of contemporary food system development and their economic content related to the position of agricultural enterprises. It explains, that the problem faced by the whole Europe and thus also by the Czech Republic, i.e. how to compete successfully on an increasingly globalised food market, fully concerns the shaping of a new agriculture structure and all its sectors, which are more-or-less related to the food and non food sector based upon agricultural raw materials production. By generalising the typical features in the running integration processes within this economy segment, essential tendencies of changes in the present-day business environment which affect both the supply and demand sides of market formation, concerning production, processing and merchandise of food are characterised. New challenging approaches for agricultural enterprises as well as from the the CAP regulation policy point of view in this business branch are evaluted there.