This paper presents results of a 1995 survey of 864 maize-growing households in six states that account for more than 70% of India's maize area: Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh. The current adoption of improved open-pollinated maize varieties (OPVs) and hybrids is quantified, the relationship between adoption of improved germplasm and use of improved crop management practices is examined, the economic impacts of adoption are estimated, farmers' seed procurement and management practices are described, and implications for maize research and development policy are discussed. On the whole, the survey results confirm that India's national maize seed industry is expanding rapidly. Since seed policy reforms were introduced in the late 1980s, the area planted to improved OPVs and hybrids has grown rapidly, and adoption of improved germplasm has fueled important changes in farmers' crop management practices. However, special policy measures may be needed to ensure that the benefits of improved germplasm are widely shared, such as the introduction of targeted input subsidies designed to reduce the cost of adopting improved seed and complementary inputs, government investment in irrigation infrastructure to reduce production risk in drought-prone environments, and market development initiatives to provide small-scale producers with access to stable and reliable outlets where they can sell surplus grain.