Environmental goals play a crucial role in the economic assessment of bio-energy production, particularly in countries where the agricultural sector is less competitive. In addition to the reduction of CO2 emissions, advanced biomass conversion technologies could contribute to the maintenance of landscape functions, such as the upkeep of rural scenery. From this perspective, energy production would be a by-product of the provision of environmental goods and services. This paper analyses, from a theoretical point of view, the consideration of alternative actors using biomass conversion facilities in connection with landscape maintenance and presents a case study from the Swiss lowlands. Results show that a societal optimal solution can be achieved with lower public expenditure and underlines the importance of technological development in bio-energy production.