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Abstract

Using specific estimation of ad-valorem equivalents, the paper compares sectors where observed trade flows are significantly lower than predicted flows, with sectors where a SPS/TBT measure is notified in the TRAINS database. Only three sectors are found where a significant negative coefficient matches a notified regulation. Focusing on the market for live plants and cut flowers, the paper provides a description of existing EU import requirements and discusses recent trends in relevant private standards and certification schemes. The trade-restrictiveness of EU and private standards is then assessed based on the results of a survey conducted among exporters of flowers in developing countries.

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