The paper examines the importance of pig population density in the area of an outbreak of CSF for the spread of the disease and the choice of control measures. A sector-level market and trade model and a spatial, stochastic, dynamic epidemiological simulation model for the Netherlands were used. Outbreaks in sparsely and densely populated areas were compared under four different control strategies and with two alternative trade assumptions. Results indicate that the control strategy required by current EU legislation is enough to eradicate an epidemic starting in an area with sparse pig population. By contrast, additional control measures are necessary if the outbreak begins in an area with high pig population density. The economic consequences of using preventive slaughter rather than emergency vaccination as an additional control measure depend strongly on the reactions of trading partners. Reducing the number of animal movements significantly reduces the size and length of epidemics in areas with high pig density.