The effect of subsidies on production and technical change of crop farms in France and the United Kingdom (UK) during 1980-2006 is investigated. Subsidies were not neutral on production decisions, in terms of production intensity and type. Crop farms in both countries have experienced technical progress during the period studied, higher in France. Technical progress has favoured labour and chemicals in both countries, land in France, capital in the UK, while it has disfavoured land in the UK and capital in France. Technical change has been slowed down by crop area subsidies but increased by agri-environmental subsidies in both countries.